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Mystic Tings Group

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Rhachiberothidae, or thorny lacewings, are a small family of Neuroptera, which have 13 extant species assigned to three genera as well as rather abundant fossil records and extinct taxa (Table 1): Hoelzeliella Aspöck & Aspöck, 1997, Mucroberotha Tjeder, 1959, and Rhachiberotha Tjeder, 1959 (Aspöck and Mansell 1994; Aspöck and Aspöck 1997Makarkin and Kupryjanowicz 2010; Makarkin 2015a; Oswald 2018). This family has sometimes been treated as a subfamily (Rhachiberothinae) of Berothidae (e.g., Winterton et al. 2010; Makarkin 2015a), but here we tentatively follow the familial status of Rhachiberothidae on the basis of recent extensive studies (Winterton et al. 2018; Engel et al. 2018). The distribution of the extant rhachiberothids is restricted to sub-Saharan Africa with records from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, and South Africa (Aspöck and Aspöck 1997). Rhachiberothidae is known as a sister taxon to Berothidae (Aspöck and Mansell 1994; Aspöck et al. 2001, 2012) or Mantispidae (Liu et al. 2015; Engel et al. 2018). These families and the extinct family Mesoberothidae constitute the superfamily Mantispoidea (Winterton et al. 2018; Engel et al. 2018). Mesoberothidae was established by Riek (1955) based on the two forewing fossils from the Upper Triassic Mount Crosby Formation in Australia. This extinct family is considered to be a stem group of Berothidae or it even forms a sister group to the rest of Mantispoidea (Engel et al. 2018).

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